Annex


Military Expenditures of South China Sea Claimant States, 2009-2013 (% of GDP*)

Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Brunei 3.3 3.2 2.5 2.4 2.6
China 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1
Indonesia 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9
Malaysia 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5
Philippines 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3
Vietnam 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.2

Source: World Bank database, calculated from Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS

* In US dollars at constant 2011 prices and exchange rates, except for 2013 which is at 2013 prices and exchange rates.

Endnotes


  1. Alastair Iain Johnston, “How New and Assertive is China’s New Assertiveness?” International Security, 37(4) Spring 2013), pp.7-48.
  2. See for example Bonnie Glaser, “China’s Coercive Economic Diplomacy: A New and Worrying Trend,” CSIS PacNet#46, July 23, 2012. http://csis.org/publication/chinas-coercive-economic-diplomacy-new-and-worrying-trend
  3. “China’s Position Paper on the New Security Concept.” Website of the Permanent Mission of the PRC to the United Nations. http://www.china-un.org/eng/xw/t27742.htm
  4. Bonnie Glaser, “Notes from the Xiangshan Forum,” Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, November 25, 2014. http://amti.csis.org/notes-from-the-xianshang-forum/
  5. See Bilahari Kausikan, “Size Matters: ASEAN-China Relations: Building A Common Destiny,” The American Interest, September 23, 2014. http://www.the-american-interest.com/articles/2014/09/23/asean-china-relations- building-a-common-destiny/
  6. See for example June Teufel Dreyer, “China’s Tianxia: Do All Under Heaven Need One Arbiter?” Yale Global Online, October 30, 2014. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/china’s-tianxia-do-all-under-heaven-need-one-arbiter. See also William A. Callahan, “Chinese Visions of World Order: Post-hegemonic or a New Hegemony?” International Studies Review 10 (2008).
  7. Steve Chan, Enduring Rivalries in the Asia-Pacific, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp.60-61.
  8. Ibid., pp.x-xi.
  9. See for example June Teufel Dreyer, “China’s Tianxia: Do All Under Heaven Need One Arbiter?” Yale Global Online, October 30, 2014. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/china’s-tianxia-do-all-under-heaven-need-one-arbiter. See also William A. Callahan, “Chinese Visions of World Order: Post-hegemonic or a New Hegemony?” International Studies Review 10 (2008).

One comment

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com Logo

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Google+ photo

您的留言將使用 Google+ 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

連結到 %s